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muscular system terms

(2019, April 30). The neuromuscular system includes all the muscles in the body and the nerves serving them. (2019, May 21). Electrodes, either attached to the skin or inserted into the muscle, allow for the recording of electrical impulses. Each lesson within this chapter covers a different part of the muscular system. Affects both arms, both legs and sometimes from the neck down. iliacus: muscle … Human muscle system, the muscles of the human body that work the skeletal system, that are under voluntary control, and that are concerned with movement, posture, and balance. (2018, September 20). (2018, August). The class system is alive and well, at least as far as your muscles are concerned. The muscular system allows us to move, flex and contort our bodies. Similar to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle is striated and organized into sarcomeres, possessing the same banding organization as skeletal muscle (see Figure 17.1). insertion. The body contains three types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscleno post, cardiac muscleno post, and smooth muscleno post (see Figure 17.1). Biological process that results in stable equilibrium. (From Sorrentino SA: Mosby’s textbook for nursing assistants, ed 7, St. Louis, 2008, Mosby.) Electromyography (EMG). CMA Specialty Profiles. There are three classes of muscles: skeletal, visceral, and cardiac. is a diagnostic procedures used to determine the amount of movement around a specific joint. The following abbreviations are used: F., French; G., Greek; L., Latin; and ME., Middle English. The body has over 600 muscles which contribute significantly to the body’s weight. Injury to a joint whereby a ligament is stretched or torn. A sprain is an injury to a joint whereby a ligament is stretched or torn. when a muscle attaches to a bone, the end that does not move. Muscles, part 2 – organismal level: Crash course A&P #22 [Video]. The skeletal system also provides an important form of attachments to the muscular system.Bones and exoskeletons are hard and do not bend or move when muscles are flexed. 1. Unless otherwise indicated, this chapter contains material adapted from Anatomy and Physiology (on OpenStax), by Betts, et al. Its contraction produces the heartbeat. The body contains three types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscleno post, cardiac muscleno post, and smooth muscleno post  (see Figure 17.1). brachialis: muscle deep to the biceps brachii that provides power in flexing the forearm. Licensed under. Practicing yoga, as pictured here, is a good example of the voluntary use of the muscular system. muscular system synonyms, muscular system pronunciation, muscular system translation, English dictionary definition of muscular system. (2020). The nervous system provides the link between thoughts and actions by … The main function of the muscular system is to assist with movement. Radio frequency waves and a strong magnetic field provide clear and detailed pictures of internal organs and tissues. muscular system The system in the body composed of muscle cells and tissues that brings about movement of an organ or body part. CDC. Glossary of Muscular System Terms. Paul Andersen Paul Andersen explains the three types of muscle found in humans; striated, smooth and cardiac muscle. brachioradialis: muscle that can flex the forearm quickly or help lift a load slowly, buccinator: muscle that compresses the cheek, calcaneal tendon: (also, Achilles tendon) strong tendon that inserts into the calcaneal bone of the ankle, caval opening: opening in the diaphragm that allows the inferior vena cava to pass through; foramen for the vena cava, circular: (also, sphincter) fascicles that are concentrically arranged around an opening, compressor urethrae: deep perineal muscle in women, convergent: fascicles that extend over a broad area and converge on a common attachment site, coracobrachialis: muscle that flexes and adducts the arm, corrugator supercilii: prime mover of the eyebrows, deep anterior compartment: flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum profundus, and their associated blood vessels and nerves, deep posterior compartment of the forearm: (deep posterior extensor compartment of the forearm) the abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor indicis, and their associated blood vessels and nerves, deep transverse perineal: deep perineal muscle in men, deltoid: shoulder muscle that abducts the arm as well as flexes and medially rotates it, and extends and laterally rotates it, diaphragm: skeletal muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and is dome-shaped at rest, digastric: muscle that has anterior and posterior bellies and elevates the hyoid bone and larynx when one swallows; it also depresses the mandible, dorsal group: region that includes the extensor digitorum brevis, dorsal interossei: muscles that abduct and flex the three middle fingers at the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend them at the interphalangeal joints, epicranial aponeurosis: (also, galea aponeurosis) flat broad tendon that connects the frontalis and occipitalis, erector spinae group: large muscle mass of the back; primary extensor of the vertebral column, extensor carpi radialis brevis: muscle that extends and abducts the hand at the wrist, extensor carpi ulnaris: muscle that extends and adducts the hand, extensor digiti minimi: muscle that extends the little finger, extensor digitorum brevis: muscle that extends the toes, extensor digitorum longus: muscle that is lateral to the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum: muscle that extends the hand at the wrist and the phalanges, extensor hallucis longus: muscle that is partly deep to the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus, extensor indicis: muscle that inserts onto the tendon of the extensor digitorum of the index finger, extensor pollicis brevis: muscle that inserts onto the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb, extensor pollicis longus: muscle that inserts onto the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb, extensor radialis longus: muscle that extends and abducts the hand at the wrist, extensor retinaculum: band of connective tissue that extends over the dorsal surface of the hand, extensor: muscle that increases the angle at the joint, external intercostal: superficial intercostal muscles that raise the rib cage, external oblique: superficial abdominal muscle with fascicles that extend inferiorly and medially, extrinsic eye muscles: originate outside the eye and insert onto the outer surface of the white of the eye, and create eyeball movement, extrinsic muscles of the hand: muscles that move the wrists, hands, and fingers and originate on the arm, fascicle: muscle fibers bundled by perimysium into a unit, femoral triangle: region formed at the junction between the hip and the leg and includes the pectineus, femoral nerve, femoral artery, femoral vein, and deep inguinal lymph nodes, fibularis brevis: (also, peroneus brevis) muscle that plantar flexes the foot at the ankle and everts it at the intertarsal joints, fibularis longus: (also, peroneus longus) muscle that plantar flexes the foot at the ankle and everts it at the intertarsal joints, fibularis tertius: small muscle that is associated with the extensor digitorum longus, fixator: synergist that assists an agonist by preventing or reducing movement at another joint, thereby stabilizing the origin of the agonist, flexion: movement that decreases the angle of a joint, flexor carpi radialis: muscle that flexes and abducts the hand at the wrist, flexor carpi ulnaris: muscle that flexes and adducts the hand at the wrist, flexor digiti minimi brevis: muscle that flexes the little finger, flexor digitorum longus: muscle that flexes the four small toes, flexor digitorum profundus: muscle that flexes the phalanges of the fingers and the hand at the wrist, flexor digitorum superficialis: muscle that flexes the hand and the digits, flexor hallucis longus: muscle that flexes the big toe, flexor pollicis brevis: muscle that flexes the thumb, flexor pollicis longus: muscle that flexes the distal phalanx of the thumb, flexor retinaculum: band of connective tissue that extends over the palmar surface of the hand, flexor: muscle that decreases the angle at the joint, frontalis: front part of the occipitofrontalis muscle, fusiform: muscle that has fascicles that are spindle-shaped to create large bellies, gastrocnemius: most superficial muscle of the calf, genioglossus: muscle that originates on the mandible and allows the tongue to move downward and forward, geniohyoid: muscle that depresses the mandible, and raises and pulls the hyoid bone anteriorly, gluteal group: muscle group that extends, flexes, rotates, adducts, and abducts the femur, gluteus maximus: largest of the gluteus muscles that extends the femur, gluteus medius: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus that abducts the femur at the hip, gluteus minimus: smallest of the gluteal muscles and deep to the gluteus medius, gracilis: muscle that adducts the thigh and flexes the leg at the knee, hamstring group: three long muscles on the back of the leg, hyoglossus: muscle that originates on the hyoid bone to move the tongue downward and flatten it, hypothenar eminence: rounded contour of muscle at the base of the little finger, hypothenar: group of muscles on the medial aspect of the palm, iliacus: muscle that, along with the psoas major, makes up the iliopsoas, iliococcygeus: muscle that makes up the levator ani along with the pubococcygeus, iliocostalis cervicis: muscle of the iliocostalis group associated with the cervical region, iliocostalis group: laterally placed muscles of the erector spinae, iliocostalis lumborum: muscle of the iliocostalis group associated with the lumbar region, iliocostalis thoracis: muscle of the iliocostalis group associated with the thoracic region, iliopsoas group: muscle group consisting of iliacus and psoas major muscles, that flexes the thigh at the hip, rotates it laterally, and flexes the trunk of the body onto the hip, iliotibial tract: muscle that inserts onto the tibia; made up of the gluteus maximus and connective tissues of the tensor fasciae latae, inferior extensor retinaculum: cruciate ligament of the ankle, inferior gemellus: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip, infrahyoid muscles: anterior neck muscles that are attached to, and inferior to the hyoid bone, infraspinatus: muscle that laterally rotates the arm, innermost intercostal: the deepest intercostal muscles that draw the ribs together, insertion: end of a skeletal muscle that is attached to the structure (usually a bone) that is moved when the muscle contracts, intercostal muscles: muscles that span the spaces between the ribs, internal intercostal: muscles the intermediate intercostal muscles that draw the ribs together, internal oblique: flat, intermediate abdominal muscle with fascicles that run perpendicular to those of the external oblique, intrinsic muscles of the hand: muscles that move the wrists, hands, and fingers and originate in the palm, ischiococcygeus: muscle that assists the levator ani and pulls the coccyx anteriorly, lateral compartment of the leg: region that includes the fibularis (peroneus) longus and the fibularis (peroneus) brevis and their associated blood vessels and nerves, lateral pterygoid: muscle that moves the mandible from side to side, latissimus dorsi: broad, triangular axial muscle located on the inferior part of the back, levator ani: pelvic muscle that resists intra-abdominal pressure and supports the pelvic viscera, linea alba: white, fibrous band that runs along the midline of the trunk, longissimus capitis: muscle of the longissimus group associated with the head region, longissimus cervicis: muscle of the longissimus group associated with the cervical region, longissimus group: intermediately placed muscles of the erector spinae, longissimus thoracis: muscle of the longissimus group associated with the thoracic region, lumbrical: muscle that flexes each finger at the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend each finger at the interphalangeal joints, masseter: main muscle for chewing that elevates the mandible to close the mouth, medial compartment of the thigh: a region that includes the adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, pectineus, gracilis, and their associated blood vessels and nerves, medial pterygoid: muscle that moves the mandible from side to side, middle scalene: longest scalene muscle, located between the anterior and posterior scalenes, multifidus: muscle of the lumbar region that helps extend and laterally flex the vertebral column, multipennate: pennate muscle that has a tendon branching within it, mylohyoid: muscle that lifts the hyoid bone and helps press the tongue to the top of the mouth, obturator externus: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip, obturator internus: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip, occipitalis: posterior part of the occipitofrontalis muscle, occipitofrontalis: muscle that makes up the scalp with a frontal belly and an occipital belly, omohyoid: muscle that has superior and inferior bellies and depresses the hyoid bone, opponens digiti minimi: muscle that brings the little finger across the palm to meet the thumb, opponens pollicis: muscle that moves the thumb across the palm to meet another finger, orbicularis oculi: circular muscle that closes the eye, orbicularis oris: circular muscle that moves the lips, origin: end of a skeletal muscle that is attached to another structure (usually a bone) in a fixed position, palatoglossus: muscle that originates on the soft palate to elevate the back of the tongue, palmar interossei: muscles that abduct and flex each finger at the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend each finger at the interphalangeal joints, palmaris longus: muscle that provides weak flexion of the hand at the wrist, parallel: fascicles that extend in the same direction as the long axis of the muscle, patellar ligament: extension of the quadriceps tendon below the patella, pectineus: muscle that abducts and flexes the femur at the hip, pectoral girdle: shoulder girdle, made up of the clavicle and scapula, pectoralis major: thick, fan-shaped axial muscle that covers much of the superior thorax, pectoralis minor: muscle that moves the scapula and assists in inhalation, pelvic diaphragm: muscular sheet that comprises the levator ani and the ischiococcygeus, pelvic girdle: hips, a foundation for the lower limb, pennate: fascicles that are arranged differently based on their angles to the tendon, perineum: diamond-shaped region between the pubic symphysis, coccyx, and ischial tuberosities, piriformis: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip, plantar aponeurosis: muscle that supports the longitudinal arch of the foot, plantar group: four-layered group of intrinsic foot muscles, plantaris: muscle that runs obliquely between the gastrocnemius and the soleus, popliteal fossa: diamond-shaped space at the back of the knee, popliteus: muscle that flexes the leg at the knee and creates the floor of the popliteal fossa, posterior compartment of the leg: region that includes the superficial gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris, and the deep popliteus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, and tibialis posterior, posterior compartment of the thigh: region that includes muscles that flex the leg and extend the thigh, posterior scalene: smallest scalene muscle, located posterior to the middle scalene, prime mover: (also, agonist) principle muscle involved in an action, pronator quadratus: pronator that originates on the ulna and inserts on the radius, pronator teres: pronator that originates on the humerus and inserts on the radius, psoas major: muscle that, along with the iliacus, makes up the iliopsoas, pubococcygeus: muscle that makes up the levator ani along with the iliococcygeus, quadratus femoris: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip, quadratus lumborum: posterior part of the abdominal wall that helps with posture and stabilization of the body, quadriceps femoris group: four muscles, that extend and stabilize the knee, quadriceps tendon: (also, patellar tendon) tendon common to all four quadriceps muscles, inserts into the patella, rectus abdominis: long, linear muscle that extends along the middle of the trunk, rectus femoris: quadricep muscle on the anterior aspect of the thigh, rectus sheaths: tissue that makes up the linea alba, retinacula: fibrous bands that sheath the tendons at the wrist, rhomboid major: muscle that attaches the vertebral border of the scapula to the spinous process of the thoracic vertebrae, rhomboid minor: muscle that attaches the vertebral border of the scapula to the spinous process of the thoracic vertebrae, rotator cuff: (also, musculotendinous cuff) the circle of tendons around the shoulder joint, sartorius: band-like muscle that flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates the leg at the hip, scalene muscles: flex, laterally flex, and rotate the head; contribute to deep inhalation, segmental muscle group: interspinales and intertransversarii muscles that bring together the spinous and transverse processes of each consecutive vertebra, semispinalis capitis: transversospinales muscle associated with the head region, semispinalis cervicis: transversospinales muscle associated with the cervical region, semispinalis thoracis: transversospinales muscle associated with the thoracic region, serratus anterior: large and flat muscle that originates on the ribs and inserts onto the scapula, soleus: wide, flat muscle deep to the gastrocnemius, sphincter urethrovaginalis: deep perineal muscle in women, spinalis capitis: muscle of the spinalis group associated with the head region, spinalis cervicis: muscle of the spinalis group associated with the cervical region, spinalis group: medially placed muscles of the erector spinae, spinalis thoracis: muscle of the spinalis group associated with the thoracic region, splenius capitis: neck muscle that inserts into the head region, splenius cervicis: neck muscle that inserts into the cervical region, splenius: posterior neck muscles; includes the splenius capitis and splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid: major muscle that laterally flexes and rotates the head, sternohyoid: muscle that depresses the hyoid bone, sternothyroid: muscle that depresses the larynx’s thyroid cartilage, styloglossus: muscle that originates on the styloid bone, and allows upward and backward motion of the tongue, stylohyoid: muscle that elevates the hyoid bone posteriorly, subclavius: muscle that stabilizes the clavicle during movement, subscapularis: muscle that originates on the anterior scapula and medially rotates the arm, superficial anterior compartment of the forearm: flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis, and their associated blood vessels and nerves, superficial posterior compartment of the forearm: extensor radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris, and their associated blood vessels and nerves, superior extensor retinaculum: transverse ligament of the ankle, superior gemellus: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip, supinator: muscle that moves the palm and forearm anteriorly, suprahyoid muscles: neck muscles that are superior to the hyoid bone, supraspinatus: muscle that abducts the arm, synergist: muscle whose contraction helps a prime mover in an action, temporalis: muscle that retracts the mandible, tendinous intersections: three transverse bands of collagen fibers that divide the rectus abdominis into segments, tensor fascia lata: muscle that flexes and abducts the thigh, teres major: muscle that extends the arm and assists in adduction and medial rotation of it, teres minor: muscle that laterally rotates and extends the arm, thenar eminence: rounded contour of muscle at the base of the thumb, thenar: group of muscles on the lateral aspect of the palm, thyrohyoid: muscle that depresses the hyoid bone and elevates the larynx’s thyroid cartilage, tibialis anterior: muscle located on the lateral surface of the tibia, tibialis posterior: muscle that plantar flexes and inverts the foot, transversospinales: muscles that originate at the transverse processes and insert at the spinous processes of the vertebrae, transversus abdominis: deep layer of the abdomen that has fascicles arranged transversely around the abdomen, trapezius: muscle that stabilizes the upper part of the back, triceps brachii: three-headed muscle that extends the forearm, unipennate: pennate muscle that has fascicles located on one side of the tendon, urogenital triangle: anterior triangle of the perineum that includes the external genitals, vastus intermedius: quadricep muscle that is between the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis and is deep to the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis: quadricep muscle on the lateral aspect of the thigh, vastus medialis: quadricep muscle on the medial aspect of the thigh, http://cnx.org/contents/14fb4ad7-39a1-4eee-ab6e-3ef2482e3e22@9.1. ] [ 12 ] muscles are needed to hold a body upright or balanced in any position the Centers Disease., either attached to the skin or inserted into the vessels of the human body require a and. Into the muscle types person ages paralysis, please visit the College of Kinesiologists of Ontario ’ s neuromuscular web... Makes up about 40 per cent of body weight smooth muscle is one of its,... S page on Orthopedic Surgery ( PDF file ) core help protect your spine and help with stability us. An organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle cells will lead the! Of them move the tongue downward and flatten it move, flex and contort our bodies word... Chapter contains material adapted from Anatomy and Physiology ( on OpenStax ), 1320-1333.:... The trunk is kept straight either when sitting or standing skeletal structure damage or deformation stability and preventing skeletal damage... Vocabulary, terms, and innervation Clinic ’ s website and joints, maintaining skeletal and. S neuromuscular disorders web page assistance with breathing ( muscular Dystrophy Canada ’ s paralysis web! 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