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russian civil war results

Highly motivated junior officers (“volunteers”) made up the rank and file. The collapse of the Whites in South Russia and western Siberia in the spring of 1920 seemed to indicate that the Civil War was over. Main specializations of auction were Stamps. There were no open advocates of monarchist restoration, but senior figures from the State Duma, the Imperial bureaucracy and - especially - the army officer corps were dissatisfied with their marginalisation and with the breakdown of the old economic and social order; they also feared the consequences of Russia’s possible defeat in the World War. The overall situation in October and November 1918, after a year of Civil War and at the end of the First World War, was complex. From the Secret Archive, New Haven 1996. To the east the vastness of Siberia was controlled by the Czechoslovaks. Badcock, Sarah: Politics and the People in Revolutionary Russia. [2] The Bolsheviks’ demand for immediate social reform and for withdrawal from the “imperialist” war attracted increasing mass support. Rival underground forces survived the “triumphal march of Soviet power”. To the west and south they had been contained by regions under German wartime occupation - Finland, the former Baltic provinces, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, the Don Host (and further south in the Caucasus, the Germans and Turks had occupied Georgia and Azerbaijan). Prompted by fears that they were about to be disarmed by the Soviet authorities and probably encouraged by Allied advisors, the Czechoslovaks mutinied. Even with the entry of Romania into the war Russia could not push back. Casualties. [9][10], Finland was the first republic that declared its independence from Russia in December 1917 and established itself in the ensuing Finnish Civil War from January–May 1918. In the course of 1918 conscription became the main means of recruitment (coupled with various anti-“desertion” measures). Despite profound political differences, the conservative politicians and generals in Berlin found Lenin’s weak and pliable government temporarily preferable to alternatives. The British did not send troops, however they did begin to ship in equipment and supplies. While the civil war both banks and industries were kept nationalized. The admiral had been the energetic wartime commander of the Black Sea Fleet but had resigned because of the power of the revolutionary committees. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, capitalism and social … As for the “Entente”, the British refused to provide military aid, while the French were unable to do so. Their action allowed uprisings of local anti-Communist Russian elements, which took control of the central Volga region and the communications backbone of Siberia. [6] The Germans installed a Ukrainian nationalist government in Kiev. They were angry because Lenin had left the war and they wanted Russia's debts to be repaid. The skirmish that took place near Kazan was an early test of the new Red Army, a force which had originally been established to defend the western and southern frontiers against the Germans. [1] The peasant-oriented Socialist-Revolutionary (SR) party, especially its leaders, was prepared to support the Provisional Government. While losing to the German Empire they had some victories against the Austrian and Ottoman Empires. Unlike the “democratic” Komuch, the Volunteers can clearly be seen as a “White” (militarist-nationalist) movement. The policy’s chief features were the expropriation of private business, the nationalization of industry, and the forced requisition of grain and other food products. The Russian Civil War suffocated the revolution, destroyed democracy, and cleared the way for Stalinist dictatorship. General Mikhail Alekseev, their political figurehead in 1918, had been chief of staff to Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia (1868-1918) from 1915 to 1917, and Supreme Commander-in-Chief himself after the March 1917 revolution. 6 essential time management skills and techniques A Comparative Study of Government and Bureaucrats, 1917-1922, Toronto 2011. A recent case study discussing Viatka Province, where the policies of Kolchak and Communists competed for peasant support, is Retish, Aaron: Russia's Peasants in Revolution and Civil War. [15] At the same time, war-weariness, rapid demobilisation of the armies, and a global range of commitments greatly limited the Allied forces that could be committed to operations in Russia. A power vacuum existed in the interior of Russia - a vast and still very rural country. The development of the Red Army was especially important. Suddenly in early March 1919 the Siberian White armies launched an offensive through Ufa back towards the Volga. The Russian Civil War was a large conflict over the former Russian Empire.The collapse of the Russian empire in 1917 triggered a complex series of interlocking conflicts that lasted into the 1920s and are estimated to have cost 13 million lives, mostly civilian victims of famine and of the massacre and depredation practiced by all sides in the Civil War. [20] In the end, the poorly co-ordinated Red thrusts were fended off, and by October 1920 the two sides were not far from the line they had held six months earlier. [3] In August 1917 the Army commander-in-chief, General Lavr Kornilov (1870-1918), attempted unsuccessfully to assert military control over Petrograd in August and destroy the forces of the left. The mutiny of the Czech Legion transformed discontent in Communist-held territory into renewed civil war. In early November 1917 the Bolsheviks seized power by force, first in Petrograd and then Moscow. Pearce, Brian: How Haig Saved Lenin, New York 1987. [9] He was able, through a combination of revolutionary rhetoric and harsh punishment to rally the Red forces. In May 1918 it was making its way out of Russia with the aim of joining the Allied forces in France. This text [3][4] Even before the failed summer offensive the Russian population was very skeptical about the continuation of the war. He stressed the possibility of revolution in war-weary Central Europe, the consolidation of popular support for the soviets and the danger that the Provisional Government might stabilise itself through the proposed Constituent Assembly. Casualties. How an educator uses Prezi Video to approach adult learning theory; Nov. 11, 2020. Blog. During the Russian Civil War (1918–20), the Cossacks were divided. This was the unintended consequence of the actions of all the belligerents – the Reds, the Whites, and the Great Powers. In reality the American role in Russia was small. After the eventual downfall of the Central Powers, the armies occupying the eastern territories could not be resupplied with the new German Army reduced to nothing more than 100,000 volunteers. The Anti-Bolshevik Government of Admiral Kolchak, 1918-1920, Cambridge 1996. Hagen, Mark von: War in a European Borderland. Causes and Impacts of the Russian civil war. The mainstream SRs and leaders of other centre-left parties, meanwhile, regarded themselves as Russia’s legitimate rulers. It was divided on regional or political grounds and had limited military forces, mainly the foreign soldiers of the Czechoslovak Corps. The overall aim of these Marxist internationalists had been to transform the “Imperial” World War into a European revolution. Casualties and consequences of the war As many as 10 million lives were lost as a result of the Russian Civil War, and the overwhelming majority of these were civilian casualties. On the general situation see Rabinowitch, Alexander: The Bolsheviks in Power. Very different forces were being created far away in the North Caucasus. Smith, Scott: Captives of Revolution. This came to a head after the final defeat of organised White military forces in the autumn of 1920 in rural regions, like Tambov, and at Petrograd and Kronstadt. Velychenko, Stephen: State Building in Revolutionary Ukraine. The results of the civil war were momentous. Moscow had overestimated the Red Army’s ability to fight in central Europe, as it had underestimated Polish nationalism. The sovereign states were established. After Russian Empire collapsed, the independence movement took place. The Russian Civil War had three dimensions: The first was the struggle between the new Communist government and its organised “counter-revolutionary” opponents, in which the issues were primarily political and social. How an educator uses Prezi Video to approach adult learning theory; Nov. 11, 2020. The treaty inflicted deep humiliation on the country that people thought it was better to fight the Germans, but the Russian army had been disintegrated. Another 5 million are believed to have died in the ensuing famines of 1921-1922, directly caused by the economic disruption of the war. The Communist government was able gradually to consolidate its hold on central Russia. Small Allied forces held the northern ports and Vladivostok. By mid-summer Kolchak had been defeated and his forces thrown back beyond the Urals, never to return. [21] The Communists were able to keep control, partly due to their monopoly of military power, partly due to the lack of the organised political leaders among the restless population, and partly due the effective abandonment of forced grain requisitioning following the adoption of the New Economic Policy. The First Year Of The Volunteer Army, Berkeley 1971. The Communists now controlled north-central European Russia as far east as the Ural Mountains. Swain, Geoffrey: The Origins of Russian Civil War, London 1995. Popular dissatisfaction remained as revolutionary turmoil exacerbated economic problems. The emphasis in Paris was now on a cordon sanitaire along the western border of Russian territory. See especially Landis, Erik: Bandits and Partisans. The Soviet government did accrue some benefit from its humiliating situation. Firstly, the Allied victory radically altered the strategic geography. The Soviets acceded to a peace treaty, and the formal agreement, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was ratified on 6 March. The Soviet goal became the destruction of the bourgeois Polish state and an advance into Germany - spreading the revolution with the bayonets of the Red Army. The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражданская война в России, tr. It was for control of the significant city and port on the Volga River in southwestern Russia. ): The Unknown Lenin. This is an apt description. Moreover, he was unable to create a secure political base back in Siberia. The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires 1908-1918, Cambridge 2011. The Communist hold on power was still very shaky. It examines the appearance of competing centres of power, the attempt of those centres to mobilize support, and the ultimate victory of the Communists. Kolchak’s train retreated east to Irkutsk, where the admiral was handed over by his Czechoslovak bodyguards. A further 50,000 may have been victims of the corresponding "White Terror". What was left was an extreme, vicious regime that was to rule Russia until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. It examines the appearance of competing centres of power, the attempt of those centres to mobilize support, and the ultimate victory of the Communists. The Soviet government used extreme measures in the face of popular dissatisfaction with living conditions and political opposition to the Communist dictatorship. There was little revolutionary response in Central Europe, and the Bolsheviks could do very little to resist the enemy armies. DOI: 10.15463/ie1418.10489. With the start of the Russian Civil War, the collapse of the Republic and the rise of Red Russia a vacuum on the eastern border was created. 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